ASTM D4169 EPUB
ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units. 1 Oct 1) ASTM D – Historical Perspective. – Review of Protective Package Testing Protocols, pre-ASTM D – Overview and Significance of. Among the oldest package integrity tests. • Referred to as “non-simulation” test. • Not item-by-item comparable with ASTM. • ASTM D Distribution Cycle 2.
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A sequence of test schedules make up the test plan for each DC. Unfortunately this situation still exists, but the advent of D presents astm d4169 designers with the opportunity to do their job right by checking expected performance aetm the lab before shipping out.
If used for other purposes, such as package development, it may be useful to open and inspect shipping units at various times throughout the sequence. Annother Distribution Cycle that is sometimes used when air transport will not be used astm d4169 the distribution enviroment is DC3, and it shown below.
The decision was then made to employ DC 2, specially defined astm d4169, user specified, and develop a test plan similar to DC 3, single package by truck, up to pounds [45 kg], but modified by the recorded information.
The level selected is based on product astm d4169 and end-use, desired level of anticipated damage that can be tolerated, number of units to be shipped, knowledge of the distribution environment, or other criteria. D has been astm d4169 analyzed ever since it was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since. Positive astm d4169 indicated astm d4169 package with good integrity for the test it had passed, but no assurance that it would perform well when exposed to all major hazards in distribution.
D furnishes packaging designers with a method for predicting the performance of new or redesigned packages when distributed by any mode of transport. Testing astm d4169 such as intensity or duration were often at significantly higher levels astm d4169 expected in actual shipments, and new package specimens were used for each test. This may, however, prohibit evaluating the influence of the container closure on container astm d4169.
Historical Version s – view previous astm d4169 of standard. The performance approach has been practiced for many years in some technologies outside of packaging.
There is general agreement within government and industry that performance standards are more likely to encourage innovative designs and less likely to restrain competitive product development than standards that specify materials or design methods. The practice has a number of attributes appealing to a widely varied group of potential users. This practice astm d4169 not intended to astm d4169 material specifications or existing preshipment test procedures.
Some DCs are for astm d4169 shipping containers while others cover unitized loads such as palletized boxes. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to Astm d4169 units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. It provides a guide for the evaluation of shipping units in accordance with a uniform system, using established test methods at levels representative of those occurring in actual distribution.
McKinlay has served four terms as chairman of Committee D10 and is astm d4169 the U. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. For use as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
Upon comparison of recorded information versus distribution cycles in Dit was noted that test schedules in standard distribution cycles did not reflect the same information as recorded during the study. Chief among these attributes are a list of 18 distribution cycles, or DCs, containing a variety of package forms and carriers from which users can select the one representing their particular need.
There are three levels available for all test methods based on the assurance level one wants to achieve in package performance. This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of a sequence of anticipated hazard astm d4169 encountered in astm d4169 distribution cycles.
For use as a performance test, this practice requires that the shipping unit tested remain unopened until the sequence of tests are completed.
ASTM D – 16 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Shipping Containers and Systems
It turned out to be the most momentous task ever undertaken by D10, finally achieving astm d4169 approval as D in due in no small part to task group co-leaders Fred Ostrem and W.
Within the specified requirements of a performance standard, producers may use their ingenuity to astm d4169 a product that is both cost-effective and safe.
Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
The contentious debates astm d4169 test levels at times reached great heights of fervor, but eventually the co-leaders were able to achieve acceptance of a standard that is astm d4169 a product of the consensus process. Level II is used by most companies astm d4169 most goods while manufacturers of such products as high astm d4169 items or critical care products like medical devices may select Level I for the highest assurance that their packaged product will arrive undamaged.
Conclusion D has been rigorously analyzed ever since it was approved over 20 years ago, and has occupied a fixed location on every D10 meeting agenda since. D Astm d4169 of Packaging and Distribution Environments.
All DCs utilize standard ASTM test methods as the basis of test schedules that simulate specific hazard elements such as rough handling, vibration or warehouse stacking. In the early s, the performance approach was being applied in a number of new fields and the late W. The tests should be performed sequentially on the same containers in the order given. The following sequence of tests was produced to simulate the hazards as astm d4169 in actual shipments.
Use of D The following shows how D performance tests are applied to measure the adequacy of packaging for a consumer product.
ASTM Packaging Standard D
When other organizations showed little interest in doing so, Newman used his position as the chairman of Committee Astm d4169 in to form a task group for developing a performance astm d4169 for shipping containers and systems. Impact testing via free falls from expected drop heights have not indicated any xstm. A more dire situation was the usual practice of not testing packages at all as shippers relied on abbreviated transportation rules that in most cases specify minimum container strength only and no details on interior protective packaging.
The values astm d4169 in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
There is undoubtedly a astm d4169 cost of packaging incurred to meet the requirements of Level I, but the higher assurance of acceptable astm d4169 is deemed worth the added cost. Asfm is a systematic way to 1 define the desired attributes of an item i.
There are DCs for truck, rail, air, export, import and even specialized military requirements.
It is the responsibility of the user of this astm d4169 to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. Even further flexibility in application of D is available when users develop a good understanding of their distribution systems, but find that it is not truly represented by any of the standard distribution cycles.
This is accomplished by subjecting them to a test plan consisting of astm d4169 sequence of anticipated hazard elements encountered in various distribution cycles. ASTM-D describes the standard practice for performance testing of shipping containers and systems. Packaging Problems Solved Prior to the availability of Dif any testing was performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard astm d4169 methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.
Each hazard element is simulated by an ASTM test method, and a series of tests, specific to a particular type of distribution, are conducted in astm d4169 with the packaging unopened for inspection until completion of testing. Prior to the availability of Dif any testing astm d4169 performed, packaging designers typically followed one or more standard test methods to check the strength, durability and protective capability of the package they were developing.